Going through a bit of nostalgia remembering my days of flight training. Although we did not have the 21st century systems depicted above, what we did have at our disposal was no less fascinating. No matter what, flying beats walking any day.

So what on earth is a Contrail? Or a Vmo for that matter?

Contrails are created by aircraft flying at high altitudes, where the air is below -38 C. Exhaust from aircraft engines contain water vapour, as well as other gases and particles of soot and metal. When the exhaust is expelled and mixes with the cold air, the water vapour condenses into droplets, which instantly freeze into tiny ice crystals. What is visible behind the aircraft is a dense white stream of ice crystals.

Vmo refers to the maximum operating limit speed of an aircraft.

Also, my upcoming book Contrails, was influenced by my background; both in aviation and life in general. 🙂